Theoretical Models of Translation

 Comparative Model.

Comparative model focuses on the translation as a product, and it is an answear for "What?!", what word equals what word? 

It is static and product oriented centered on some kind of relation of equal equivalence.

TT=ST (approximately equal)

This Approach seeks to select the element of the target language, which will align most closely with the source language.

It has a close link with contrastive linguistics.

It focuses on the language system more than the text itself.

What's the difference between correspondence and equivalent?

Correspondence: is a relation of an approximate formal and functional equality between elements of to language systems (Grammers).

Equivalence" is a relation between two instances of language use for instance two actual utterances or text, such as a source text and a target text.

Equivalent should be selected according to it's conditions.

Different translation stratigeas results different equivalence.

Using this model we can analyze the differences between the source text and the target text.

It's also used in Corpus study which compare translations with non translate texts of the same kind in the target language.

Using this model we can discover the nature of the similarity relation between the two sides of the relation, with respect to given linguistic features.

Process Model 

This model represent translation as a process, it is a respond for "what or what's next?", it It introduces the dimension of time thus it is a dynamic model.

It describes the production process, the sequential relations between different phases or levels of the translation process.

And these three levels are: the aproximate, the external conditions and the social cultural, all the three levels influence the final form of the translation. As a result, it affects the readers, changes in their cognitive emotional state, and effects the social-cultural level.

It allows us to make statements about typical translation behavior, such as the micro-level use of time, the temporal distribution or decision-making, so we can represent a flow diagram.

This model also used when the researcher focuses on the translator's problem-solving procedures.

Casual Model 

It answers the question "why", why the translation looks the way it does or what affects its causes?

It explains the translation causes and effects, also the constraints such as: patronage and ideology.

It allows us to make statements and formulate all kinds of hypotheses about causes and effect, in response to questions.

Translation is caused by previous conditions and causing effects on readers and caltures.

It's the best model to use for future development, and the most powerful model because it contains the other two models.

It looks for the approximate causes of a translator's decisions, while selecting the equivalents.

It encourageds us to make specific explanatory and predictive hypotheses.

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